Thirteenth to fourteenth Century AD documents mention that Yonok Nark Nakhon Chiang Saen and the territory of the LAnna Thai Kingdom covered the Mekong River basin, the river basins of the Kok, Ing, Ping, Wang,Yom and Nan river. Yonok stretched all the way to Sipspngpana(China) all the way to Haripunchai (present day Lamphun province). The most important rulers were Phraya Singhanawat, Prachao Pangkaraj, Prachao Prahom Maharaj and Praya Mengrai Maharaj who was the ruler in 1261 AD.
           Phraya Singhanawat is credited to be the person that established Yonok Nart Phan Singha Nawat located on the Mekong in what it now known as part of Chiangrai province in the year 574 AD because of conflict with people in the north. This new location was near Umong Sela Nakorn cave. There he encouraged local people to come under the rule of Yonok Kark Nakhon. This kingdom eventually covered a very wide region that spread from Salawin River to the west in what is now Myanmar, Nan province to the north of Pak Nam Pho to theo south, One town of significance during that time was Muang Chaiprakran located somewhere near the Fang and Kok river. The southernmost boundary of the Kingdom of the city of Kampengphet.

         The Yonok territory was governed by many kings such as Prachao Pangkaraj, Prachao Prahom Maharaj , Prachao Chai Siri . During the reign of Prachao Maha Chai Chana ( circa 1009 AD ) there was great flood and the restraining walls the kept water out of the city was breached and was said to be the cause of the king and city nobles death. This settlement was said to be called Wiang Nong Lom, with was not far from Chiang Sean lake, Wat Pha Ngao and the area where the Kok and Mekong river meet. The survivors of the flood held a meeting to a select a person with Royal lineage as their new leader. This how the name Wiang Prueksa came about as prueksa means consultation. The city went into decline during the next 98 years.

          It was only during the reign of Praya Mengrai that the territory was once more consolidated. The city of Chiang Rai was established in the year 1262 AD under his leadership, Phraya Meang also liberated the city of Haripunchai from the Mon people in the year 1292 AD and expended the Lanna domain even future, Wiang Khum Kham was name the capital city of the kingdom. This city proved to be a poor choice because it experienced frequent floods. He consulted Phraya Ngam Muang, the ruler of Phu Kham Yao ( present day Phayao province) which was an independent area but an ally of Phraya Mengrai and Poh Khun Ramkhamhang Maharaj ( the rule of Sukhothai ) in selecting an appropriate location for a new capital . The new capital city was called Nopburi Sri Nakhon Ping Chiang Mai or what is now known as Chiang Mai.
Source : Guide Book ,Vol.5, No. 50, February 2006


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